OTDR is the abbreviation of Optical Time Domain Reflectometer. It is a fiber tester used to characterize optical networks supporting telecommunications. It can be used to measure loss, optical return loss (ORL) and optical distance on fiber links. In addition, OTDR can provide a graphical representation of the entire optical fiber link by providing the graphical trajectory characteristics of the fiber under test. However, there are too many OTDR brands on the market. Choosing the right OTDR for your application can be challenging. So the purpose of this article is to provide some suggestions when choosing an OTDR. Hope it can help you.
Why do you need OTDR?
As we all know, fiber optic testing is a basic procedure to ensure that the network is optimized to provide reliable and robust services without failure. Therefore, there are two reasons for the need for OTDR.
When testing optical cables, there are two commonly used tools: OTDR and optical power meter. Surprisingly, they can produce completely different results. An optical power meter measures the received optical power, while an optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR) uses backscattered reflection to provide length and loss.
Why is there such a big difference? Using a optical power meter, you will know if the fiber is cut or damaged during transmission, because you will notice a certain degree of waste. With OTDR, you will know the distance to the interruption point or whether you have reached the required test point. The disadvantage is that if consumption is required, OTDR is not as accurate as a power meter. Another benefit of optical power meters is that OTDRs sometimes miss sources of signal loss, such as fiber misalignment. If there is a transmitting cable, you will also g
Recently, GSMA once again called on all countries to use 6GHz as an authorized spectrum, and warned that if governments cannot use 6GHz as an authorized spectrum, it will jeopardize the development prospects of 5G in the world.
GSMA pointed out in the statement that the 6GHz band can take into account the advantages of low-frequency coverage and high-frequency capacity, which is essential for the full release of 5G potential in the next ten years. However, governments of various countries have already disagreed on the issue of how to use the 6GHz spectrum. To this end, GSMA calls on governments of all countries to use the full frequency band or the upper half of 6GHz as authorized spectrum.
Spectrum is the oxygen of the wireless industry, an extremely scarce resource, and a key factor in promoting the development of wireless technology. Today, why does GSMA make such a strong appeal for the "unexplored" spectrum resources of 6GHz? How important is the 6GHz
What is Ethernet ?
Ethernet is really just a name for a Local Area Network (LAN) and it is commonly used to refer to the cables used to connect your device to your network. So, what is a LAN cable?
A LAN is just a term for a small network of devices all connected together. This could include a single computer, or several linked together in your home. If you are asking yourself “how to use Ethernet?” it is very simple. Just connect your device to your modem using an Ethernet cable and you are ready to go.
Ethernet has been the standard for internet connectivity for a long time and as our internet technology has evolved, so too have the cables we use for it. You will most commonly see Cat 5 cables which can support speeds of up to about 100 Mbps. For anything faster than that you’ll need Cat 5e, 6, 7, or 8. To find out what an ethernet cable is, go through this article. While here, you can also find out the difference between CAT6 vs CA
Today Thefo wants to share with you some methods to reduce the loss in the fiber fusion splicing process.
1)Try to use the same batch of high-quality brand-name bare fiber on one line. For the same batch of fiber, the mode field diameter is basically the same. After the fiber is disconnected at a certain point, the mode field diameter between the two ends can be regarded as the same. Breaking the spot weld minimizes the effect of the mode field diameter on the splice loss of the fiber. Therefore, the optical cable manufacturer is required to use the same batch of bare fiber to continuously produce according to the required length of the optical cable, sequentially numbering and distinguishing the A and B ends on each disk, and not jumping the number. When laying the optical cable, it shall be laid out according to the determined routing sequence according to the number, and ensure that the B end of the front cable is connected with the A end of the latter optical cable, so a
When you choose an Ethernet cable, you will find that buying an Ethernet cable is not as easy as it used to be. You now have more choices, so it is very important to choose the right Ethernet cable to ensure the best performance at the best price: Cat 5, Cat 5e, Cat 6, Cat 6a, Cat 7 What is the most cost-effective?
It is important to buy a suitable network cable: over-specify, you will pay too much; if you don't specify it, performance will be compromised, and the LAN or Ethernet link will not work properly.
How to buy an Ethernet cable? First, a suitable Ethernet cable will help to achieve a better connection. The type, quality, performance, and cable price of the Ethernet will affect the choice. Therefore, knowing the following facts will help you make an informed decision to buy the best Ethernet cable.
First and foremost, to find the best LAN cable, you must understand the purpose and specifications of the cable. The type of network cable you need depends
AAS (Active Antenna System), an active antenna system, can be seen as a combination of RRU and antenna, which integrates an active radio frequency transceiver unit and a passive antenna array.
AF (application function), application function. AF is an application server that interacts with the other 5 G cores and the network control plane NF and provides business services. AF can target different application services and can be owned by an operator or a trusted existence.
AMF (Access and Mobility Management Function), access and mobility management function. AMF is responsible for UE identity verification, authentication, registration, mobility management and connection management functions. Compared with 4G EPC, the function of AMF is not MME.、
AUSF (Authentication server function), authentication server function, re-authentication authentication
Thefo's partner KomShine, Jiangsu Jixing Optical Communication Technology Co., Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as: Jiangsu Jixing, KomShine) has always been guided by "technology and innovation", focusing on the research and development of optical communication products. Now, Jiangsu Jixing has developed dozens of products in multiple series of fiber fusion splicing, fiber measurement, end-face inspection and cleaning, which are exported to Europe, North America, South America, Australia, Africa and other regions. In order to better meet the 5G era, KomShine launched a new product-the new mini visual fault locator KFL-11M.
KomShine KFL-11M visual fault locator breaks the traditional design concept and adopts a new pocket design. The appearance is mini and exquisite. The appearance of the dual-color main body and the red and green buttons make it look simple and atmospheric.
Thefo's partner Orientek launched a new mini VFL TFL-Q, let us explore the mystery of TFL-Q together.
The new generation of TFL-Q visual fault locator adopts a new concept design, simple appearance design, mini compact, ergonomic design, one-handed holding and one-key opening, easy to carry. Because of its novel design and fresh button color, TFL-Q red light source will become a fashionable item favored by communicators. (Thefo reminder: TFL-Q is only 12cm in length and light weight to 50g)
The TFL-Q mini visual fault locator core is equipped with a high-quality laser chip, and is equipped with a newly upgraded high-quality laser. The 650nm red laser emits strong and stable, and the fiber penetration test distance is up to 30KM.
TFL-Q mini visual fault locator adopts 2.5mm universal interface design, which can meet the needs of SC, FC, ST connectors; at the same time, in order to improve its product cost performance and environmental protection, TFL-Q mini vi
In 2020, 5GtoB will accelerate significantly, and vertical industries will gradually become important users of 5G, and they will be deeply involved in the verification of 5G network capabilities to examine whether 5G meets the needs of the industry. In the test, due to factors such as inconsistent business requirements, single test scenarios, and failure to consider the capabilities of equipment manufacturers, industry users have different perceptions of 5G network capabilities. This article conducts a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the 5G coverage, business requirements and network planning of underground mines, and provides a certain reference for 5G network planning in coal mines.
1. Data analysis of 5G coverage test in underground coal mine
1) Underground test in Xinyuan Coal Mine
In the test of Xinyuan Coal Mine of Shanxi Huayang New Materials Group, a 2.6GHz four-channel leather station was deployed, with a single channel transmitting power of 21.7